Traumatic Brain Injury
Physical damages caused by falling, traffic and occupational accidents and sportive activities, events like gunshot injuries and assault may produce results which may cause results from a temporary blurring of consciousness to a complete brain injury. Today, while the deaths caused by traumatic brain injury have been diminished with the advancement of surgical and emergency support methods, the cognitive and physical function losses caused by brain injury can be treated with the methods of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Robotic Rehabilitation and Neuro-Rehabilitation.
Brain tumor may be defined as the growth of abnormal cells in brain. Brain tumor has benign and malign varieties. The malign ones are defined as cancer cells. The benign and malign tumors may cause a pressure in the skull when they grow. This situation causes brain injury and threatens life. There are different kinds of brain tumors. These may be classified as:
Primary Brain Tumor
This contains any tumor started in brain. This tumor may start from the brain cells, the membranes, nerves or tissues around brain. Tumors cause brain damage by eliminating brain cells. The primary brain tumors seen especially in adults are meningioma and gliomas.
Glioma: This is a tumor type which occurs in brain and spinal cord. Gliomas start in the adhesive supportive cells which encounter neurons and help them to run (glial cells).
Meningioma: Consisting more than 30% of all the brain tumors, this is the most common type of primary brain tumor. Meningioma is caused by the meninx, which is the membrane cover that encounters and protects the brain. Cases of meningioma are diagnosed in women more frequently than men. 85% of meningioma cases are non-cancerous, slowly growing tumors.
Because of brain tumor or after brain tumor operation, some patients experience the problems in using hands and issues like decrease in arm and leg capabilities, walking and balance disorders, and coordination losses. A simultaneous, rapid rehabilitation process may be needed to enable these patients to stand up, walk and use their hands and arms healthily. In this period, special rehabilitation programs according to the problem which is caused by the brain area affected by the tumor.
2.5. Rehabilitation After Brain Injury
While some patients are discharged from hospital after brain tumor operations, some of them may need additional physical therapy and rehabilitation. Brain tumor and brain operation may affect the patient’s physical abilities, cognitive functions and psychology, and functional losses and paralysis may be seen as a result.
In this situation, the rehabilitation approaches like Physical Therapy, “Ergotherapy-Occupational therapy” and “Speech therapy” come to the forefront. A physical therapy and rehabilitation specialist examines the patient, detects the functional situation, sets the targets of rehabilitation with the rehabilitation team, family and the patients, and makes the treatment plan to reach these targets. The neurorehabilitation after the brain and nerve injuries is a team work. This team is consisted of the health professionals like:
- Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Specialist
- Rehabilitation nurse
- Speech Therapist
- Physical Therapy technician
- Orthosis-prosthesis technician
- Social worker
Consultation is made with the doctors who work in the branches like Brain and Nerve Diseases, Oncology, Neurology, Psychiatry, Internal Medicine and Infection Diseases if needed. The physical therapy after brain tumor operation may be planned in 3 ways as inpatient, ambulatory or at home. In deciding the most suitable treatment process for the patient, the factors like the general condition of the patient, learning potential, duration of active participation to the therapies during a day are taken into consideration.