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Prostate Cancer

What is prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer occurs with the uncontrolled growth of cells in the prostate gland. Cancerous cells first spread into the prostate with uncontrolled growth. It then extends into the capsule surrounding the prostate, piercing the capsule and spreading out of the prostate. Unlike benign prostate gland enlargement, prostate cancer originates not from the center of the prostate, but from the region close to the capsule, away from the center. Therefore, urinary complaints in prostate cancer disturb the patient later. During the growth and spread period, it can spread to nearby organs, the lymph system and other parts of the body through blood circulation. Prostate cancer has a slow course and the tumour can spread to bones and other organs by showing a very aggressive character.

What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?

Symptoms of prostate cancer may occur depending on the progression of the disease. In this respect, it is a disease with an insidious character. Especially in the early stages, no symptoms and complaints may be seen. Since the patient may lose some treatment chances when symptoms of prostate cancer occur, regular doctor checks are of great importance in treatment success.

Prostate cancer symptoms can be listed as follows;

  • Difficulty urinating
  • Decrease in urine flow
  • Blood in semen or urine
  • Pain during ejaculation
  • Feeling of discomfort in the groin area
  • Bone pain
  • Erectile dysfunction

These symptoms, which signal prostate cancer, can sometimes be an indicator of benign prostate growth. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (benign growth of the prostate), which develops due to enlargement of the prostate gland, may also show similar signs and complaints. If prostate cancer has spread to other parts and organs of the body, it can also cause symptoms related to that area. For example; if it spread to the bone, it is like bone pain...


How IS prostate cancer diagnosed?

If there is a possibility of prostate cancer according to the patient's PSA blood test and/or anterior finger examination results, the suspicion should be confirmed by biopsy. Prostate cancer is diagnosed as a result of one or more biopsies performed on the prostate gland. Biopsy identifies benign prostatic hyperplasia, cancer, or other existing medical problems in the patient. During the biopsy, a few small pieces of prostate tissue are taken by entering through the rectum with the help of a needle. These tissue samples are examined under the microscope and if there are cancer cells, they are detected.

The following scans are performed to diagnose prostate cancer;

PSA Blood Test: The PSA level in the blood of the patient diagnosed with prostate cancer is equal to the amount of cancer in the body. PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) is a protein produced by cells in the prostate, and the higher the amount in the blood, the more advanced the prostate cancer is. At the same time, the level of PSA is extremely helpful in monitoring the success of the given treatment or in detecting postoperative regeneration.

Anus Finger Examination: It is one of the most commonly used prostate cancer screening tests. The abnormalities are examined according to the size and characteristics of the patient's prostate by touching with the finger.

Transrectal Ultrasonography: During transrectal (anterior) ultrasonography, a small catheter is placed inside the rectum. The probe emits high-frequency sound waves that produce echo and bump back into the prostate. Using these echoes, the computer creates the image with a sonogram that can show abnormal regions. Research is underway to show that transrectal ultrasonography reduces life-threatening risk in prostate cancer.

Advanced PSA Test: For more specific results on pancreatic cancer, studies to improve the PSA test are ongoing. The clearer the PSA results, the less the patient is concerned and the less the need for other tests.

Insulin-Similar Growth Factor: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is an important growth and antiapoptotic factor for cancer cells in many cancer types. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) stimulates IGF-1-independent apoptosis (cell death) and prevents growth. Recent research indicates that elevations in high IGF-I and low GFBP-3 levels, or both, are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer.

How is prostate cancer treated?

In the treatment of prostate cancer, different treatments may be preferred depending on the possible side effects as well as the growth rate of the cancer, its spreading status, the general health status of the patient and the effectiveness of the treatment to be applied. If prostate cancer is at an early stage, immediate follow-up may be recommended instead of treatment. The surgical option is one of the most common and effective treatment methods in prostate cancer. Robotic, laparoscopic and open surgical methods are available and each surgical method should be preferred according to the patient. The aim of the surgical approach is to remove the entire prostate. In appropriate cases, the nerves around the prostate and helping to harden the penis can be preserved.

The preferred surgery in early-stage prostate cancer is laparoscopy. Prostate radiotherapy (radiotherapy) is also an important treatment option in suitable patients in the early stage. Laparoscopic surgery provides the patient with a comfortable surgical process and has high success rates in terms of cancer control. After these operations performed through 4-5 small holes, the patient suffers less pain and can return to daily activity in a short time. Since there is no surgical incision, these surgeries provide a great deal of patient satisfaction cosmetically. Major advances in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer remove this disease from being a feared disease.

Treatment according to prostate cancer stages

Prostate cancer can be treated with surgery or radiotherapy in stage 1 and 2. Then, hormonal treatment can be started or acted on according to the patient's condition. In the treatment of prostate cancer, the third stage plan should be either surgery or radiotherapy. According to the researches, it has been determined that a 5-month chemotherapy after surgery and radiotherapy also prolongs the life span of prostate cancer. Chemotherapy should be considered in addition to hormonal therapy after surgery or radiotherapy in patients with a PSA of > 40, lymph node involvement, or a Gleason score of > 7. In stage 4, the main treatment for prostate cancer should be hormonal treatment. With hormonal treatment, the patient's ovaries can be surgically removed or the male hormone can be blocked with injections every 1-3 months. There have been many innovations in the treatment of stage 4 prostate cancer since 2010. With some drugs used, chemotherapy has been shown to significantly increase life expectancy in stage 4. In addition, some agents used in situations where traditional hormone blocking drugs do not work have been developed. Although the prostate cancer vaccine has been tried, it has not shown the expected effect much. The efficacy of radiotherapeutic agents has been demonstrated only for patients with bone metastases. In addition, in our country, treatments with PSMA combined with radioactive Lutetium are also possible in prostate cancer.

DA Vinci robotic surgery

Prostate cancer surgeries performed with Da Vinci Robotic System are very important especially for the patient not to experience loss of sexual function after surgery. For an experienced laparoscopic surgeon, the arms of the da Vinci robot, which provides a 3D image with "high definition" quality and 10-20 times magnification, have the ability to move 540° in 3 dimensions, can easily remove the cancerous prostate by protecting the nerves and vessels in the body and even in the most difficult place and provides a radical treatment.

What should be considered after prostate cancer treatment?

Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that has different treatments according to the stage of the disease and the general health status and expectations of the patient. Although cancer monitoring, radiotherapy and hormone treatments are among the general approaches, the most appropriate and current approach in prostate cancer limited to the prostate is the surgical removal of the entire prostate

The most important point to be considered after the operation is to continue regular follow-ups. All patients should have regular PSA measurements during the first two years after surgery, quarterly; every six months for the next two years and once a year thereafter, and should be monitored for adverse effects such as urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction.

Why should I be in the Memorial Health Group for the treatment of gastric cancer?

Studies have shown that the treatment success of prostate cancer gives better results if followed up and treated in centers with surgical and medical treatment experience and appropriate technical infrastructure. In experienced centers, long-term cancer outcomes are better and the chance of solving cancerous tissue is higher without damaging the surrounding organs and causing additional problems such as urinary incontinence and erection problems.


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