What is Bariatric Surgery?
Bariatric surgery is indicated as the only effective method for maintaining weight loss in morbid obesity patients with a body mass index of 35 and above or over 40.
Obesity is excessive fat accumulation in the body to the extent that it impairs health. Excessive and wrong nutrition habits, hormonal factors, sedentary lifestyle, the genetic transition can cause obesity. Obesity is a disease that needs to be treated. Because untreated obesity causes many health problems such as diabetes, heart diseases, cancer, infertility, and joint disorders. Bariatric surgery, also known as "obesity surgery", is recommended for patients with a body mass index of 40 and above (morbid obesity) or a body mass index of over 35 and who cannot lose weight with methods such as medical nutrition, exercise, and medical treatment under the supervision of an expert. In addition, bariatric surgery can be performed for those with a body mass index above 35 and those who have co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, patients who are treated for diabetes, if they cannot get rid of fatty tissue.
Surgical methods that provide permanent weight control in the treatment of obesity improve the quality of life of the patients while at the same time eliminating the risk of many life-threatening diseases caused by obesity. There are various types and applications of bariatric surgery that are different from each other. Which treatment method will be applied to the patient is planned according to the weight of the patient, the existing diseases accompanying obesity, and nutrition habits. The rate of weight loss of patients after bariatric surgery is very high; however, it should not be forgotten that to maintain the weight lost after bariatric surgery, the person must change their lifestyle permanently.
Who might be suitable for bariatric surgery?
- People with a body mass index between 35-40 and those with obesity-related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes, infertility, NAFLD, steatohepatitis (NASH), hypertension, sleep apnea
- Patients with a body mass index over 40
- Patients who cannot lose weight with methods such as medical nutrition, exercise, and medical treatment under the supervision of an expert
- People who are not heavily dependent on alcohol or drugs
- People who do not have a health condition that prevents surgery
- People who are capable of understanding and adapting and can work in coordination with the medical team after the surgical procedure.
What are the risks of bariatric surgery?
As with any surgical procedure, some health risks may occur in bariatric surgery, both in the short and long term. As a matter of fact, bariatric surgeries do not carry more risks than any surgical procedures.
Risks associated with the surgical procedure may include:
- Adverse reactions to anesthesia
- Blood clots
- Lung or breathing problems
- Leaks in the gastrointestinal tract
- Life risk (to the same degree as any general surgical operation)
- The longer-term risks and complications of bariatric surgery vary depending on the type of surgery.
Long-term complications and risks may include:
- Intestinal obstruction
- Dumping syndrome, which causes diarrhea, rash, dizziness, nausea, or vomiting (Dumping syndrome is a complication that may occur in patients who have undergone some type of bariatric surgery, due to an excessive sugar or fatty meal after surgery.)
- Gall or kidney stones
- Low blood sugar (Hypoglycemia)
- Ulcer-Acid Reflux
- The need for a second surgery
- Life risk (A bariatric surgery has the same degree of risk as any general surgery)
The risks of these complications are always higher in the laparoscopic method (4.2%) and much lower in the robotic method (1%). These rates are lower than the complications risk of normal gallbladder surgery.